with compound in Iran have a precedence of about 8000 years. The
various buildings and houses have passed a time of approximately 6000
years until attaining to the complete central compound area.
in various historical era, has had one or more application of the
most primitive way of encircling a refuge inside a stockade could be
seen in the stone fences of Azerbaijan. Those stockades, though not high,
but have a sign of distinguishing the limit of ownership by
constructors. Those stockades still could be seen in regions of Iran
such as Guilan plains and rustic mat covered with a fence called
Courtyard have been
excavated as a connected element among spaces in ancient houses of
Tappeh Zagheh (6th millennium B.C.)
consist of 2 parts “compound” and “covered” with residential
spaces and non-residential places. The first (residential) were
divided to two sectors for repose and sleeping and daily activities,
keeping livestock or restoring agriculture products, fold, pen,
kitchen and some stores were built in the yard. All houses had some
two three yards.
this very place, a sample of a very simple yarded house, with one
single room and small storage, is considered as a primitive quest to
form a compound yard, in better feature and very near to central yard,
is excavated in a building named “Sakhteman Soukhteh” (meaning:
burnt building), in “Tappeh Hessar” of
“Damghan” this building has had a defensive stockade, tower
and rampart in distances. Various spaces like central hall, storages,
kitchen and some other rooms, were opened towards the yard.
building named “Sakhteman Soukhteh” in the ancient hill of
Hassanlou, (800-1000 B.C.) was built with the yard. A lateral specialty
of this building, is its having two yards through one residential
was first built with a central yard. This building had a central yard
in lower floors; each yard had reposing space, bathroom and kitchen
around themselves. Probably houses in the ancient city of “Susan”,
had also an open (or closed) central space, so that other spaces were
opened towards it.
have utilized central yard in their architecture, their remaining
works in Kuh Khajeh in Systan and Ashur confirms the aspect.
Kuh Khajeh, building of a palace with central yard and two verandas is
excavated; spaces of some part of the palace, were opened toward the
yard, but had no visual connection looking outside.
Palace of the first and second century, had also the same
specification in the plan, having four verandas on four sides of yard.
Iranian architecture researches have introduced this design as a
pattern for construction of Four-Verandas Mosque with central yard in
the outset of Islam.
method of construction was applied later, in Fire Temple of "Firouzabad".
This great building have three domes and lateral spaces and also a
in continuation of Parthian buildings, have built big buildings with
yards, like "Sarvestan Palace", "Kasra Palace" in
Tisfoun and "Khosro Palace" in Qasre Shirin.
type of construction (building with central yard), was followed in
Islamic era and some of big mosques in beginning of Islam were built
in this way. Some important works of Islamic outset with this design
are: Mosque of Fahraj (8th
century AD.), Tarikhaneh Mosque of Damqan and Mosque of Nain.
the following periods, distinguished sample of Iranian mosque were
introduced with four verandas and central yard.
is not much samples of house plans of Iran in outset of Islam, but it
is probable that in some parts of country, houses were built stressing
mostly at introverts. Houses of two far away buildings in Gorgan and
Siraf have also their yards.
of the most ancient houses, remained from 14th century AD., in Iran,
is House of
Taq Bolandha, in Nahadan Quarter of Yazd. House has a vestibule
and spiral corridor. Main fronts of the house are in two sections,
sun-looking and sun backed; also some spaces were built in Eastern and
Western fronts; one of the particularities of this house is
application of four-section-ceiling as a cover of some spaces of
are many houses with yard, remained from Safavid era, in Isfahan.
Shiraz has also many houses from Zand era. Also, one could find pretty
houses, specially in Kashan, Shiraz, Yazd and other cities, as a
souvenir of Qajar era, in which central yard is formed by setting side
by side the various spaces of house.