of Medicine in Iran
to "Stele of Hamurabi", on which most ancient written laws
of mankind are recorded, origin of medicine may be traced back to
years, even centuries, before second millennium B.C. 282 articles
listed on Stele include several dealing with medicine. Among these,
No. 215 infers that, about 2000 years before Christ, surgical bronze
instruments were currently used in Mesopotamia, and that surgeons
living 4000 years ago were able to perform refined operations,
particularly in ophthalmologic field.
reads thus: "If a doctor heals a wound with a bronze instrument,
removing the white stain of eye with it, he will receive 10 Silver
Sokel for his medical fee."
the face of this privilege, a strict code of medical ethics was also
implemented. Thus, could see in Article 218: "If a doctor doesn't
heal a wound and worsens the sick eye, both his hands should be
ancient Iran, medicine was based on more comprehensive laws, to which allusions
are found in "Vandidad", collection of laws in "Mazd
Yasna". Vandidad is written in the form of dialog and following
teachings of "Ahura Mazda" recorded in this book.
first physician capable of healing pain, fever and untimely death, in
ancient world, was "Tariteh".
36 and 37 of chapter 7 (Vandidad) describe arduous process of
achieving title of physician. The book also refers to punition of an
unskilled doctor, who touches upon surgery.
whose text was most probably compiled from Sassanid sources, provides
further information on medical science. It lists five means of
of Jondishapour, built upon the order of "Shapour 1", was
the medical center in Sassanid period. Here, a medical school and a
hospital with its own school existed, which were distinctive of the
city, assuring its re-known at least until 876 A.D.
Hallmark of city is mausoleum of Iran's illustrious general, Safarid
the course of time, with gradual attraction of physicians from
Jondishapour, by Caliphs, seated in Baqdad, scientific focus shifted
from Jondishapour to Baqdad.
thanks to Dailamite "Azedoddoleh", medical science once
again flourished in Iran. In Shiraz, city's public hospital, known as
"Azodi Hospital", was built as part of a university, where
philosophy, astronomy, medicine, chemistry and mathematics were
taught. Also, existence of scientists, such as Razi and Avicenna, as
well as masters like Jorjani (compiler of "Zechariah Kharazmshahi
Medical Encyclopedia"), permitted medical science to continue its
evolution and have its Sassanid flourish again.
that radiant era, a period of despoilment came to pass, during which
no scientific centrality existed.
with accession of Qazan Khan, assisted by his minister, Rashideddin,
physician of Abaqa Khan, a university town was erected in Iranian
Capital. In view of establishing its medical school (Rashidi
Darosshafa), fifty re-known physicians from India, China, Syria,... were brought together, each being entrusted education of ten
enlightened minister also established another hospital in Soltanieh,
in a district named after him. The expense of this hospital were
provided by endowments. Moreover, yet another hospital, which served
for many years, was created in Citadel of Soltanieh upon the
orders of Sultan Mohammad Khoda Bandeh.