Origins of Modernism in Iran
Reprinted from: Honar Nameh, University of Art, Tehran, No. 20, 2003 (A brief of the article)
Social developments in Iran during the nineteenth century cannot be limited to the presence of such intellectual figures as Mirza Malkom Khan, Mirza Agha Khan Kermani and Ayeneh Eskandari (Alexander's Mirror); nor can it be all summed up in the reformist thought of Mirza Fath Ali Akhund-zadeh.
It is clear that these intellectuals and many others played a constructive and decisive role in this regard.
However, developments in other fields, especially the visual arts, took place in tandem with the reformist movements and philosophies.
Many artists in such disciplines as design, graphics, painting, calligraphy, photography... appeared on the scene that furthered the same currents in the pictorial mold.