of Carpet Weaving in Iran
evidences confirm that carpet weaving has flourished from Sasanid era;
related to a Chinese calendar called “Suyi”, which belongs to 590
to 617 AD, a short time before the decline of Sasanid dynasty,
"Suyi" mentioned carpet
among Iranian products. During three centuries of Sasanid
dynasty, there are other signs, although vague and not
The above mentions prove that the Sasanid carpets contained images
adorned with gold and valuable stones. Certainly, such carpets are not
suitable as floor-coverings. The same glittery adorning style has been
used in the king Khosrow Anoushiravan’s large carpet with Garden
design, that covered the floor of great hall of Tisfoun Palace.
Probably it has not been the same type of present carpets.
in the beginning of Arab’s rule , carpet weaving declined in Iran.
Because of racial and tribal reasons, Arabs did not need any carpet or
floor-covering, so despite pottery art, that they were the best in,
they had not paid any attention to carpet weaving in any time of their
the other hand, in the beginning of Islam religion, there was no type
of luxurious carpets among Arab’s. This stop and decline lasted only
until the time of Omavid and Abbasid Caliphs, who decorated their
dreamy palaces with precious and magnificent Persian Carpets.
11th century AD Seljuk Turks occupied large part of Iran
and Settled in Azerbaijan and central areas of Iran. With this
invasion, they brought their language and culture, along that mixed
with Persian art and culture. Its result was changes in Iranian carpet
designs. Unfortunately , there is no carpet sample left from that
period of time; but their similarity to Aladdin Masque’s carpets in
Qounia (Seljuk Capital) Could be noticed. Flourishing of Iranian
carpet weaving continued only until the time of Mongol. But after the
Mongol invasion, like other artistic activities, carpet weaving also
stopped for the period of time in Iran.
15th century, Broken patterns became common in carpet
weaving. Western painters were specially interested in carpets with
Broken Patterns and showed it in their paintings.
reasons below may make this special interest clear.
century AD, carpets having curvilinear images, were considered Royal
carpets and were not suitable for common places, but the Royal Courts.
Fine Arabesque images,
yellow flower (Palmette flower), Chinese Birds, Animal’s combat and
other very fine curvilinear images did not match the painter’s
works, because these images attracted too much attention in their
environments painted by mentioned painters, Broken patterns could
inspire painter’s favorite space better specially unusual and
illusory parts of it.
Patterns have a complicated communicating language, that makes
paintings more strange and considerable. This is what calls a
Going over Iranian painting
up to 14th and 15th century AD, clears that
patterns and images had not changed until that time.
There is no Important carpet
pattern among the works of first centuries of Islam, except Stripped
design (like Elijeh carpet) in carpet and other weavings.
Since Persian painting
glitters and changes from Ilkhanid era and exactly Abu Said
Bahador’s period, carpet influence on painting is also observed,
exactly in the same era.
For instance at Timur, the
Lame’s, domination over Iran, most of art specialties changed
essentially. Changes in carpet images were as follows:
Geometric designs changed
gradually towards designs having rotating and curved lines. Images
like Ivy and flowers, Palmettes, cloud shape masses of Mushrooms,
Imaginary and real animals and birds like dragon, Simorgh (a fabulous
monstrous bird), wild cat and…. mixed with designs.
One of the most important period in carpet weaving evolution is 16th
century AD and the most important time is 15th century AD,
that essential changes appeared in Persian carpet images and altered
them from the image known as “Broken” to “Curvilinear”. This
change is the result of 15th century AD designers effort.
As it is seen, this change was not done simply and by sudden, but it
progressed very carefully and cautiously to prevent any conflict with
tradition and disagreeing with carpet weaving art and techniques of