Photography Articles

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Masoud Soheili

Canada, 2008

Close-Up Lenses (Filters)

Close-up lenses are similar to filters, a lens in a frame. These lenses are used for taking photos from small things, or if you want a big and full-frame photo from something, as a flower, you can use these lenses. It allows the lens to go closer to the subject than before and to achieve a larger image scale.

These lenses can be combined by adding their refractive powers. Do not combine more than two close-up lenses because there is a danger of mechanical vignette. Sharp-focus setting is ensured with close-up lenses through normal SLR cameras, by observation through the viewfinder, or through auto focus. Multiple Close-up lenses in photography reduce the quality of the photos.

Close-up lenses are transparent. An increase in the exposure time is not necessary.

In photographing with Close-up lenses, keep the camera steady on a tripod or other mount. Carefully measure the distance from the lens to your subject; and make sure that the subject is exactly in line with the lens-to-film axis.

The following lenses are available:
+1: 1000 mm focal length
+2: 500 mm focal length
+3: 333 mm focal length
+4: 250 mm focal length
+5: 200 mm focal length
Macro: This lens has a diopter of +10 and 100mm focal length. As it fills the frame of the 35mm format, life size to somewhat larger than life size pictures are possible.

Filters for Black & White and Color Films

Name No. Color Factor Filters
Circular Polarizing C-PL Gray 2 It is similar to Polarizing filter, except rays go circular, not linear, after passing through the circular polarizing filter. It eliminates possible exposure errors, which may be caused by the slight polarizing of rays in cameras of TTL system, using fixed mirrors.
Cross Screen
(Soft Focus + Cross Flare)
Achromatic 1 This filter can create X flares by changing its position. Looking directly into the filter, shows the brilliance of the subject or the direction or position of flare.
Diffuser Spot
(Soft Focus)
(Soft Filter)
Achromatic 1 It produces soft and gently diffused images, desirable for landscapes and portraits.
Diffusion could be controlled by lens-opening, the larger the opening, the greater the effect; It is available now also +1, +2... for different diffusion effects.
If there is any trouble for focusing, it is better to focus first and install the filter next.
Fog filter It is similar to Fanta Image, but has less whiteness and more of misty effect. It is available in #1, #2, #3, #4 and #5. These could be used either single or in combination, to have the desired effect.
Multi Coated It is suitable for use with coated and non-coated lenses. It prevents ghosting and glare by eliminating reflection and does not require an increase in exposure.
Multiple Image This filter adds a touch of fantasy to the range. 3, 5, 6... images in either parallel or concentric patterns, give most pleasing and striking effects. It is desirable for portraits.
Neutral Density ND 2x
ND 4x
ND 8x
Gray 2
It is used for taking photos in bright sunlight on high speed films.
It is used also in still photography for brilliant subjects.
Polarizing PL Gray 2~3 It removes or reduces reflections from non-metallic surfaces, darkens blue sky, while increasing color saturation penetrates haze. Simply rotates the filter in its mount until the optimum effect is obtained.
This filter excludes glare and reflections in color and Black & White photography, to produce clearly resolved photos. It helps bring out form and color in still-life shots, where glare or reflections are impediments, such as on water surface, glass-framed pictures and windows. In color shots the blue of the sky is accurately rendered. When it is used with a yellow filter, it produces clear color scenic shots..
Before mounting Polarizing filter on the camera, look through it at the scene to be taken; turn it until the desired effect appears. Note the filter axis position with reference; then mount the filter in this position to the camera.
The factor varies with the amount of light excluded.
Split Focus 2 It is designed to take photos of subjects distant from each other, with one shutter action. The near subject is focused through the Split Lens with the camera set on infinity. The result is a clear photograph of both the subject and background.
Spot-Sand 2 Its effect is similar to Spot-Soft filter, but fades the background more heavily.
Spot-Soft 2 It is used for portrait photography, when sharp subject is required, and it fades up the background.
Star 2 It creates an star effect (4 or 8 ) on the light sources.
Variable Cross 2 A 4 point star, in which both the angle of the cross and the position of the points could be changed.
Vario Color 2 It is used for creating a mood, exaggerate a feature, add fantasy range... for creative photography.
Each unit comprises two colors and by rotating one of the components every shade from the deepest penetrating color to the lightest tint could be produced. Continue to rotate, the second color appears.
Built in metering system will automatically compensate for the altered filter factor.
This filter is available in different combinations as: red-blue, red-green, red-yellow...

Filters for Black and White Films

Combination of these filters are also available: Light yellow, medium yellow, dark yellow, yellow orange, red orange, red green, light blue, light red...

Name No. Color Factor Filters
Blue B Blue 2 Blue filter enhances the tonal rendition of the sky by emphasizing mist in valleys and transmitting light rays over water, fog, and haze. In addition, this filter is used for the tonal separation in still-life photography and the correction of the light spectrum from artificial light sources.
Green G Green 4 Besides providing all the effects of Y2 filter, it lightens green foliage by darkening the colors it absorbs. It is preferable to Y2 for outdoor portraits, because it produces healthier and more natural skin tones.
Orange O2 Orange 4 It creates strong contrast for red and yellow, which are rendered lighter than seen with the naked eyes, against other colors. It penetrates haze and it adds details to distant landscapes and subdues glare on the surface of the water.
Red R2 Red 8 It absorbs ultra-violet blue, green and yellow rays, rendering the red and yellow objects lighter. In sunlight outdoor photos, with panchromatic film, the filter has strong effect on contrast; blue sky will rendered darker, red and yellow subjects lighter than the eyes see them. It will cut through haze for long distance shots.
This filter is normally used with infra-red film.
Skylight 1A Light Pink 1 Creates the effect given by Y2 filter.
UV B Transparent 1 Absorbs ultra-violet rays, without increase or decrease of exposure; so it prevents haziness and foggy effects in distant landscape; it creates clearness.
Constant use of this filter is recommended for clearer photos as well as lens-protector.
Yellow Y1
Yellow 1.5
It absorbs ultra-violet rays, neutralizes, to a certain extent, violet and blue rays and renders good tonal interpretation many bright colors predominate. This filter creates clear and perfect contrast between landscape or seascape with blue sky and clouds. It is the most useful filter for bright outdoor photos.
Green Yellow YG Yellow Green 2 It corrects the color rendering of panchromatic film to approximate that of the human eye and imparts natural effect to skin and lip color tones in portrait.

Filters for Color Films

Name No. Color Factor Filters
Cloudy 81A
Brown 1.2
It reduces blue in light and it is ideal for photography under cloudy or hazy light and it has the best color reproduction.
Color Spot Green
The central subject retains the natural color, while the surrounding take on the aura of the selected color, so it creates a mood to suit the occasion.
Warm red and orange, and to a lesser degree yellow, with the green lending coolness to the photo.
Used in conjunction with multiple image lenses adds infinite changes of mood and many interesting possibilities.
Convertible 85A
Dark Brown 2
It converts and permits the use of type A color film for outdoor photography in daylight. This filter is used only with tungsten color film.
Flash 80C
Dark Blue 2.4
It converts and permit the use of daylight type color film in photography with clear flash lamp.
Flood 80A Blue 3 It reduces red in light, and is used for photography with daylight films with a photo flood lamp.
Florescent It produces photos with natural colors by eliminating the greenish tone that is present under florescent light.
Mor or Eve 82A Blue 1.4 This filter reduces red in light, and it is suitable for early morning or late afternoon photography.
Rainbow The finely etched lines of the surface of these diffraction-grid filters act as prisms, splitting incoming light into its spectral components to give the picture dreamy colors in a rainbow effect.
The results vary according to the size and strength of the light source, as well as the focal length of the lens; it could be checked beforehand the effect in the viewfinder.
Skylight 1A Light Pink 1 It reduces excess blue and adds warmth to the pictures; also absorbs ultra-violet rays, without increase or decrease of exposure; it is a good protector for lens in case of constant use.